Close this search box.

Data Privacy Laws: Understanding the New Regulatory Landscape in the US

In today’s world, data privacy has become a major concern for businesses and consumers alike. While the internet has brought unprecedented convenience and connectivity, it has also increased cyber threats and data breaches. As a result, governments around the world have responded by passing new regulations and laws to protect personal information. In the US, data privacy laws are evolving rapidly, leading to a complex regulatory landscape that can be difficult to navigate. This article will explore the key data privacy laws and regulations in the US and best practices for businesses to ensure compliance.

The Evolution of Data Privacy Laws in the US

Data privacy regulations have come a long way in the US since the 1970s when the Fair Credit Reporting Act was passed to protect consumers’ credit information and ensure accuracy in credit reporting. Over the years, other laws have been enacted to protect various types of personal information, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in 1996, which regulates the use and disclosure of individuals’ health information, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) in 1999, which requires financial institutions to safeguard customers’ personal information. These early data privacy regulations laid the foundation for the more comprehensive laws that would follow.

The Emergence of State-Specific Laws

As technology advanced and data breaches became more common, states began to take matters into their own hands and pass their own data privacy laws. One of the most significant of these is the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which went into effect in 2020. The CCPA helps California residents take control of the collection and sharing of their personal information.  Other states, such as New York and Virginia, have also passed their own data privacy laws, but none are as comprehensive as the CCPA.

The Push for Federal Legislation

There is growing support for a federal data privacy law that would apply to all states. In 2019, Congress introduced the Privacy Act, which contains provisions similar to those found in the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), such as the right to be forgotten, the right to access personal information, and the right to have personal information deleted. The Privacy Act would also establish a new federal agency, the Data Protection Agency, to enforce the law and protect consumers’ privacy rights.

The Privacy Act has yet to be passed, but it represents a significant step forward for data privacy in the US. If enacted, it would provide a uniform set of data privacy standards that businesses would need to follow, regardless of where they are located or where their customers are located. This would simplify compliance and reduce the burden on businesses that operate in multiple states with different data privacy laws.

In conclusion, data privacy regulations in the US have evolved significantly over the past few decades, from former laws that protected specific types of personal information to state-specific laws that give consumers more control over their data. The push for federal legislation represents the next phase in this evolution, and it remains to be seen how it will impact businesses and consumers alike.

Key Data Privacy Laws and Regulations

Data privacy laws and regulations are becoming increasingly important in today’s digital age. With the rise of data breaches and cyberattacks, governments around the world are enacting laws to protect consumers’ personal information. Several states have passed their own comprehensive data privacy laws in the US.

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)

The CCPA is one of the US’s most comprehensive data privacy laws. It applies to any business that collects personal information from California residents, regardless of where the business is located. The law was enacted in response to growing concerns about collecting and using personal information by companies like Facebook and Google. Under the CCPA, businesses must give consumers the right to know what personal information is being collected, the right to opt out of the sale of their personal information, and the right to request that their personal information be deleted.

The CCPA also requires businesses to be transparent about their data collection and sharing practices. Businesses must provide consumers with a privacy notice that explains what personal information is being collected, how it will be used, and who it will be shared with. This notice must be easily accessible and easy to understand.

The New York SHIELD Act

The SHIELD Act, which stands for Stop Hacks and Improves Electronic Data Security, was signed into law in July 2019. The law was enacted in response to the growing number of data breaches and cyberattacks targeting businesses in New York. The SHIELD Act requires businesses to implement a data security program that includes administrative, technical, and physical safeguards. The law also expands the definition of personal information to include biometric information, such as fingerprints and facial recognition data.

The SHIELD Act also requires businesses to notify consumers and the Attorney General’s office in the event of a data breach. The notification must be made in a timely manner and must include specific information about the breach, such as the type of information that was compromised and the steps that the business is taking to mitigate the damage.

The Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (CDPA)

The CDPA was signed into law in March 2021, making Virginia the second state to pass a comprehensive data privacy law after California. The law is similar to the CCPA in many respects but includes some unique provisions. For example, the CDPA gives consumers the right to appeal a business’s decision to deny their request for access, correction, or deletion of their personal information.

The CDPA also requires businesses to conduct data protection assessments for certain types of data processing activities. This assessment must identify and evaluate the risks associated with the processing of personal information and must include measures to mitigate those risks.

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and its Impact on US Businesses

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which went into effect in the European Union in 2018, has significantly impacted US businesses operating in the EU. The law was enacted to give individuals greater control over their personal information and to harmonize data privacy laws across the EU. The GDPR requires businesses to obtain explicit consent from individuals before collecting their personal information and gives individuals the right to access, correct, and delete their personal information.

US businesses that fail to comply with the GDPR can face significant fines. These fines can sometimes be as high as 4% of the business’s global annual revenue. As a result, many US businesses have had to implement new data privacy policies and procedures to comply with the GDPR.

In conclusion, data privacy laws and regulations are becoming increasingly important in today’s digital age. Consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of protecting their personal information, and governments around the world are enacting laws to ensure that businesses are taking the necessary steps to protect that information. US businesses must be aware of these laws and regulations and must take steps to comply with them to avoid significant fines and reputational damage.

The Role of Government Agencies in Enforcing Data Privacy

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

The FTC is the primary federal agency responsible for enforcing data privacy in the US. The agency has the power to bring enforcement actions against businesses that violate data privacy laws, as well as the authority to issue guidelines and regulations to promote compliance.

State Attorneys General

State attorneys general also play a role in enforcing data privacy laws. They have the power to bring lawsuits against businesses that violate state-specific data privacy laws and the authority to investigate and prosecute data breaches.

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

The HHS is responsible for enforcing data privacy laws related to healthcare, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The agency has the power to bring enforcement actions against healthcare providers and businesses that violate HIPAA regulations, as well as the authority to issue guidelines and regulations to promote compliance.

Best Practices for Businesses to Ensure Compliance

Conducting a Data Privacy Audit

One of the first steps businesses can take to ensure compliance with data privacy laws is to conduct a data privacy audit. This involves identifying what personal information is being collected, where it is being stored, and who has access to it. The audit results can then be used to create a comprehensive privacy policy. PPGS ™ can help with this process. Our team has established a privacy policy grading system that can uncover weaknesses in your privacy policy.

Implementing a Comprehensive Privacy Policy

A privacy policy outlines how a business collects, uses, and protects personal information. It should include details about what information is being collected, how it is being used, and who it is being shared with. The policy should also explain how consumers can exercise their rights to access, correct, and delete their personal information.

Training Employees on Data Privacy Practices

Employees play a critical role in protecting personal information. Businesses should provide training to ensure that employees understand data privacy laws, their responsibilities for protecting personal information, and how to respond to data breaches.

Regularly Reviewing and Updating Security Measures

Finally, businesses should regularly review and update their security measures to protect personal information. This includes implementing strong passwords, encrypting sensitive data, and using firewalls and antivirus software to prevent data breaches.


Data privacy laws in the US are evolving rapidly, creating a complex regulatory landscape for businesses. However, by understanding the key laws and regulations, implementing best practices, and working to protect personal information, businesses can ensure compliance and protect their customers’ privacy. Whether you’re a new start-up or an established company, PPGS ™ can work with you to establish an effective, transparent and user-friendly privacy policy

Benjamin Franklin
“They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.”
Stephen King,
“Friends don’t spy; true friendship is about privacy, too.”
Ayn Rand
Civilization is the progress toward a society of privacy. The savage's whole existence is public, ruled by the laws of his tribe. Civilization is the process of setting man free from men.
Bill Nelson - NASA
If we don't act now to safeguard our privacy, we could all become victims of identity theft.
John Twelve Hawks
Anyone who steps back for a minute and observes our modern digital world might conclude that we have destroyed our privacy in exchange for convenience and false security
Edward Snowden
I don't see myself as a hero because what I'm doing is self-interested: I don't want to live in a world where there's no privacy and therefore no room for intellectual exploration and creativity.
Previous slide
Next slide
Connect with us